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Monday, 30 September 2013

The Celebrations Of The Millennium Of Rome & Its Commemoration In The Currency

Philip went with his army to the Euphrates, leaving his brother Prisco, to oversee the East from Antioch. He arrived in Rome in the late summer of 244, the city where he would remain until 245 when it began military operations in the Danube region where the defeat of the Roman army in the East and the change of emperor had decided to try various Germanic people to attack. Some wins he would stabilize the situation and return to Rome in 247 to combine the celebration of their successes with the festivities in honor of the anniversary of the foundation of the city the following year (248 AD).

In fact, we have no direct evidence on the nature of the celebrations, but these must have been notable as Philip did coin both in his name and in that of his wife and child, an extensive series of coins in all metals allusive to spread the news around the imperial territory. Reverses have MILIARIVM legends SAECVLVM SC, SAECVLVM NOVVM SC, SAECVLARES AVGG and reversals among other reasons, a number of different animals, in all probability, made their appearance in the shows at the amphitheater and the classic representation of the wolf suckling the twins.

Even in today, the coins are still available which were once used as the main currency of the time. So you can get any of the old coins in their original state. You can get mint proof coin sets online as well.

The huge payment to the Persians, plus the cost of the celebration of the anniversary of Rome and the ambitious building program Philip further aggravated during his reign in the Empire's fiscal plight. To address this situation, Philip turned to the same file as its predecessors further deteriorating the quality of the coins.

The End of Philip

The festive mood does not last long. In the last months of 248 AD, a revolt broke out in the area of the Danube, directed by Ti. Claudio Marino Pacatiano. Although the usurper was quickly overthrown by his own troops, the situation would have been seen by some Germanic tribes as an opportunity to renew their attacks. Philip sent to C. Fifth Mesio Decius, a senator of distinguished military career to the region to restore the order and expel the barbarians. In May or June of 249, his troops proclaimed him emperor allegedly against his will.

The new revolt was a bad news for Philip who was facing serious financial problems. The Emperor moved to northern Italy to face the new usurper leaving Rome to his young son, whom he had associated on the throne. The armies met in Verona in August or September 249 where Philip was defeated and killed.

Saturday, 28 September 2013

The Reign Of Philip, The Arab & The Celebration Of The Millennium Of The Founding Of Rome

The Ascent To The Throne Of Philip

The reign of Gordian III (238-244 AD) was marked by a permanent military crisis caused by the threat of the Goths on the Danube and, above all, of the Persians in the East, under the leadership of Ardashir captured several border towns. Gordian environment was consolidated as Timesitheus regime's strongman, who as praetorian prefect was virtually in charge of the political and military leadership, even to marry his teenage daughter to the sovereign. In late 242, Gordian came to Antioch with a large army and in the spring of 243 began offensive operations, which were crowned by significant initial successes, reaching the Roman troops to the Persian capital of Ctesiphon itself.

Such was the momentum of the attack that even Timesitheus illness and death in the second half of 243 could not stop. Philip replaced him as praetorian prefect and the Roman army went into Assyria and went to the left bank of the Euphrates not far from Ctesiphon. In mid-February of 244, Roman forces suffered a serious defeat. Gordian III died in the battle himself or was killed by his own men soon after.

Coins money was always an important part if the history, in fact, it was the only currency in those times so they always has to use it as the main currency means. Now it is not in practice, but people love to collect it as a hobby and Indian head cents and the Roman coins.

Philip was quickly chosen as successor, thereby, originating from ancient authors to suspect a possible intervention to Gordian III. The new sovereign immediately proceeded to negotiate peace with Shapur. Deep within enemy territory in a desperate logistical situation and in front of an army demoralized and defeated, Philip agreed to pay a huge sum in form of gold coins to ensure the withdrawal, the equivalent of 500 thousand dinars of gold and the recognition that belonged to Armenia Persian sphere of influence. It was not, however, unconditional surrender, the re-conquered territories in Mesopotamia were retained, and the dinar coin money was given as payment of ransom and tribute for establishing a newspaper.

Friday, 27 September 2013

Antoninianus Displaces Denarius More About Roman Coins During The Reign Of Philip The Arab

The reign of Philip in many ways marks the beginning of a new stage in the Roman monetary production, visible in two changes of great significance: The final displacement denarius as the centerpiece of Roman naming system and introduction of the officinae brands in the mint of Rome.

Although during the reign of Philip still occasionally coined denarii, it is clear that this term left by the years definitely a regular part of the monetary system. The antoninianus, a double denarius whose value was stated by the bust of the emperor with radiated crown on the front, thus, became the main currency in the Roman world and coined it in huge quantities and with very low quality, marking a significant increase in nominal value of currency without a rise of parallel metal value.

The minting of gold coins during the reign of Philip is much rarer than as compared to his predecessor Gordian III, but sesterces were issued in large quantities. In my opinion, this indicates that, despite the expansion of the money supply and the deterioration in the metal content of antoninianus, inflation was still too high. By contrast, the successor of Philip, Decius, he would have to introduce a double sestertius to react to the rising prices.

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During the reign of Philip, Rome remained the main center of the production of coins, but rising antoniniani minting volumes represented an enormous challenge to the Roman state and necessitated the assistance of some provincial mints in the task. It is likely that one of these mints were Viminacijum in the Danube region and other East Antioch. There were two areas in which, by the concentration of troops, the state should make large outlays, so it was convenient to have the local production of coins to meet them.

An important fact in this context is the appearance from the year 248 AD marks antoniniani officinae minted in Rome, which demonstrates that the mint had six separate workshops each minted its own specific reverse types within of each series. It is the first sign of a change that would increase the future and reflect the need for a more effective organization of production to meet the sharp increase in the monetary production represented by the minting of antoniniani increasingly depreciated.

Thursday, 26 September 2013

Trajan Decius And The Series Of The "Divi" Honoring Deified Emperors & The Evolution Of Coins

Decio Budalia born near Sirmium (now Serbia); it would be, therefore, the first in a long line of the emperors that ruled in the Roman world. However, unlike the soldier-emperors of the last third of the third century AD, before reaching the throne, Decius had reached the highest levels of imperial society, having been consul and prefect of the city of Rome and having joined by traditional marriage with the senatorial aristocracy.

The versions that have come down to us on his accession contain, no doubt, some later elaborations as Decio trying to exculpate its liability in usurping against King Philip. Having been sent by him to Illyria to quell the revolt of Pacatiano, finished in May or June of 249, was proclaimed emperor by his troops, allegedly against his will. Decius had by then about 60 years old.

The Number of Divisions

In general, Decio policy was clearly conservative answer, apparently, to a diagnosis that adjudicated the problems of the empire to a distancing from traditional values and this was especially true in the field of religion. Decius issued an edict requiring all citizens of the empire to take part in the traditional sacrifices to the gods for the safety of the empire. The authorities would issue a certificate to each person once it had complied with the order. The refusal of Christians to participate initiated the first major systematic persecution of the church.

The reverence for the past of Rome and the insistence on the need to recover the old virtues that had brought her to greatness as the only remedy for the problems of the time is also one of the themes of the coins of Decius. This is particularly clear in the famous series of antoniniani Decio minted in Rome in honor of the "divine", eleven emperors of the past who were deified after his death, although, mysteriously, is included Alexander Severus, who had never been officially elevated to the rank of God. The other ten are commemorated emperors Augustus, Vespasian, Titus, Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Marcus Aurelius, Septimius Severus Comfortable.

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Reproduced pictures minted coins of each of these carried emperors, but, of course, provided the crown ray indicating that it is antoniniani. Only two reverse coin in this series, an altar from which rises a flame and an eagle with open wings. The obverse legend always contains some version of the name of each emperor accompanied the epithet "divo" while on the back bearing the word only consecratio, referring to the official deification process conducted by the Senate.

It is very interesting that the emperors honored in this series are not what would be expected according to the views of the past imperial senatorial historiography presents. In particular, the inclusion of a figure like Commodus (the literary sources that convey a negative unanimously) is particularly eloquent in this regard. In my opinion, this is because the antoniniani were aimed at a wide audience and included those deified rulers of the oral tradition of the people of the empire retained a positive image. Hence, the presence of the son of Marcus Aurelius, who was recalled by the Roman people as a host of wonderful shows. On the other hand, it is striking that the list of those who deified emperors Decius omitted from the series: Julius Caesar, Claudius, Lucius Verus, Pertinax and Caracalla. Consider it likely that the first was set aside because it was not considered an emperor while the other four were judged as sufficiently relevant figures.

Despite its conservative propaganda and his tribute to the virtues of the past, the reign of Decius involved no break in the deterioration of Roman coins. While paying tribute to the emperors of the past, the few that were circulating imperial denarii were simply reacuñados as antoniniani. That is, doubling its value without modifying their metal content. The introduction of a "double sestertius" by Decius appears that the price increases had reached a level that had become obsolete sestertius, a coin that more than two centuries and a half had been one of the centerpieces of the Roman monetary system.

Why Decio Coined The "Number Of The Division? – A Probable Hypothesis

The antique coins are always of interest to talk about as they have something appealing and historical background to be discussed. As we saw it in some other post, despite the conservative propaganda and his tribute to the virtues of the past, the reign of Decius involved no break in the deterioration of Roman coins. While paying tribute to the emperors of the past, the deniers of the past that were circulating were just as antoninianus, thus, doubling its value without modifying their metal content.

Recoinage process meant the effective end of virtually every denarii that were still outstanding and many better quality antoniniani minted before 250 AD, those who were not cast in the mints of the empire were hidden by their owners as demonstrates the great treasure hidden by the years in Reka Devnia's greatest treasure-product known dinars without doubt the insecurity generated in the area of the Danube by the invasion of the Goths under the leadership of King Cniva, but monetary policy Decius.

For Kenneth Harl, recoinage process must have been accompanied by a revaluation of the gold that from this time must have passed 25 antoniniani worth to preserve between these currencies a cup of fair change, the relative value of silver and gold.

The Roman public was accustomed to using a heterogeneous circulating coinage which lived several emperors. Recoinage process radically changed this reality generating a significant level of homogenization. It is possible, therefore, that the issue antoniniani series dedicated to deified emperors of the past looked not only to pay tribute to these sovereigns, but also reintroduce the family faces were disappearing by the recoinage and restore artificially; in this way, the heterogeneity of circulating the Roman public was accustomed to get their hands on. The goal was undoubtedly to facilitate the acceptance of the new coins and build confidence in the value thereof. Recall that the Emperor Trajan had resorted to such a measure in the early AD minted silver coins imitating historical types when a process made them disappear in recoinage Roman circulating.

Tuesday, 24 September 2013

The Most Valuable Coin In The World

The world's most valuable currency would have been destroyed or disappeared in Egypt and was about to cease to exist at the World Trade Center. It measures 34 mm, weighs 27 grams and has an allegory of Liberty in front of the Capitol in Washington on one side and an eagle on the other. Its initial value was $20, but was sold in 2002 for nearly 7.6 million ( 5.7 million euros at current exchange rates).

Since today is on display at the
New York Historical Society which has managed to borrow it from a private collector and mysterious as most of the history of metal. A security guard cares currency standing beside the glass case to protect it. It is the only piece so guarded in the relaxed museum next to Central Park that keeps relics of the history of New York. "You can not take pictures. Might later give us permission," says the guard.

The currency, known as the "double eagle" (worth double the "eagle" $10), was coined in 1933 as one of the last gold that never came to be in circulation. In April of that year, Franklin D. Roosevelt abolished the gold standard to prevent panic from banks and hoarding of coins in the middle of the Great Depression. The Treasure merged all currencies that remained the Smithsonian and not considered legal tender. Other "double eagle" (about half a million) had to have been destroyed, but it is suspected that an employee of the Mint were reduced to ten. The Secret Service found and destroyed nine in 1937.

By mistake or a fake, the US Treasury authorized the export of currency to Egypt to the collection of King Farouk. In the 50s, when the monarch was overthrown, his possessions went up for auction including currency. The United States complained and the "double eagle" is withdrawn from sale, but even then the US Treasury got back. I lost track for four decades.

In 1996, a London coin dealer Stephen Fenton tried to sell it for 1.6 million dollars (1.2 million euros) in a room at the Waldorf - Astoria in New York. His alleged buyers were undercover agents of the Treasury, who seized the currency. Fenton fought it in court alleging that he had been legally sold to Egypt.
According to a settlement , the Treasury kept the currency and recognized legal value. When the Treasury auctioned in 2002,, the buyer had to pay, in addition to the price of $ 7.6 million.

The buyer at auction has never revealed his identity and Sotheby's broker has only said that it is not a coin collector, but someone fascinated by the bizarre story of this particular one. The owner lent to the Federal Reserve of New York for to expose, but as he saved 10 months has now decided to leave it to the New York Society.

The currency has survived nearly a century of hustle. Twelve years ago, again the valuable Us coins was narrowly saved from destruction. While pursuing the judicial process , Treasury put it in a safe building of World Trade Center. When the parties reached an agreement in late January 2001, the Treasury sent his deposit the bullion in Fort Knox, Kentucky, which is Less than eight months after the World Trade Center collapsed.

Saturday, 21 September 2013

New Porsche 911 Turbo Cabriolet Variants Release

Having a hobby is a nice way to spend time and it helps you gain knowledge about something in detail. All the people have different interests and hobbies like book reading, having collectible coins, learning about new cars and their releases. In this article, you will find some good information about the new release of Porsche 911 Turbo Cabriolet variants.

Porsche has announced the addition of the new 911 Turbo, the most powerful sports family flagship model of the German brand, Turbo Cabriolet convertible versions and Turbo S Cabriolet.

These new versions, which hit the market 50 years after the first presentation of the 911 and coinciding with the 40th anniversary of the appearance of the 911 Turbo will be available in December in the markets with a price of 200,211 euros for the variants 911 Turbo Cabriolet and the 239 492 Turbo S Cabriolet.

It came to the notice that 911 will be released at the Auto Show in Los Angeles on November 20 with the same combination of dynamism, performance and efficiency that the Turbo and Turbo S closed or Coupe.Both are equipped with the turbocharged 3.8-liter six-cylinder that develops 520 horsepower in the 911 and 560 Turbo S version.

So the car accelerates from 0-100 km/h in 3.5 and 3.2 seconds respectively, and both have a top speed of 318 km/h, both fuel consumption figures below ten liters they spend on average 9.9 liters, equivalent to CO2 emissions of 231 g/km.Compared with their predecessors, the new vehicles have 30 more horsepower and have 0.2 seconds faster acceleration, plus they get 15% higher efficiency.

The dynamics of these two new versions are characterized by the dual-clutch PDK transmission and the new PTM all-wheel drive in its standard equipment as well as the address for the rear axle and active aerodynamics.The address on the rear axle has a positive impact on performance in circuit and daily use; depending on the driver, active aerodynamics can be adjusted to obtain the optimum efficiency and maximum driving dynamics with the push of a button.They are also characterized both as the Coupe by bulging rear fins of the new generation of the 911 Turbo, which are 28 millimeters wider than the 911 Carrera 4, which are even more evident when the top is folded.

Another striking feature of the 911 Turbo Cabriolet is the exclusive upper arch Porsche with lightweight magnesium frame. This technology allows keeping the same roof line than the Coupe when the top is closed. As in previous models, the hood opens and closes in 13 seconds and up to a speed of 50 km/h.